What is essay?

It summarizes the main ideas of a text, which can be a book, or part of it, a magazine article and a journalistic report, for example.

Used as a personal study technique, and very useful as a research methodology, it also serves to organize presentations.

How to make?

To make a file you must have the first contact with the text through a brief reading. This dynamic reading will serve to place you and know what the content of the text you want to sign is about.

After this first impression, take several readings. While doing this, gather the main information in an organized way and remove citations with the appropriate indications of where they can be found in the texts.

Since the ideas that you think are the main ideas may not be the same for other people, when you finish the file you will notice that the result is a particular job. After all, it reflects the aspects valued by each individual person.

The fichamento can be done manually in fiches, in blocks of notes or in computer support.

Adopt the form that you consider most practical for your studies. Remember that if the file is a task requested by a teacher, it is important to follow the rules of the Technical Standards Association.


There are basically two types of filing. In one of them are citations of the content (quotation citation), while in the other you include a critical analysis, expressing your personal opinion on the subject (textual and bibliographic recordings).

The files follow the following structure: header, bibliographic reference and text with the main content.


A document consisting of the meeting of the most important sentences quoted in a text. Therefore they must be transcribed in quotation marks.

Particular attention must be paid to making citations meaningful, especially when parts of sentences are omitted. In this case, you must use ellipses between brackets […] or parentheses (…).

Textual or abstract

A page in which the main ideas are inserted, but in their own words, although citations can also be used.

Ideas should be organized according to the order in which they appear in the text. You should express your opinion and even make your own schemes.

This type of filing is also called reading or content tagging.


Fact in which the ideas selected, and which express personal opinion, are inserted by themes with the proper indication of their location in the text.